The relationship between the Druze and Jews has been controversial,[215] Anti-Jewish (antisemitic) bias material is contained in the Druze literature such as the Epistles of Wisdom; for example in an epistle ascribed to one of the founders of Druzism, Baha al-Din al-Muqtana,[216] probably written sometime between AD 1027 and AD 1042, accused Jews of killing the sacred prophets. [74] It promoted absolute monotheism and the concepts of supporting your fellow man, true speech and pursuit of oneness with God. [10] Most Israeli Druze identify ethnically as Arabs. [citation needed], The call summoned people to a true unitarian belief that removed all attributes (wise, just, outside, inside, etc.) After the Shehab dynasty converted to Christianity, the Druze community and feudal leaders came under attack from the regime with the collaboration of the Catholic Church, and the Druze lost most of their political and feudal powers. While the Shaykh al-Ê»Aql, which is an official position in Syria, Lebanon, and Israel, is elected by the local community and serves as the head of the Druze religious council, judges from the Druze religious courts are usually elected for this position. The rebellion was led by al-Atrash family, originated in local disputes and Druze unwillingness to pay taxes and conscript into the Ottoman Army. One of the main evidences is the belief in reincarnation, butthere is a main difference between the Druze and the Hindus concerningthis issue. The Druzes do not recognize any religious hierarchy. [83], In 1043, Bahāʼ al-Din declared that the sect would no longer accept new adherents, and since that time, proselytism has been prohibited. Traditional snacks eaten with mate include raisins, nuts, dried figs, biscuits, and chips. This arrangement was to provide the cornerstone for the privileged status which ultimately came to be enjoyed by the whole of Mount Lebanon, Druze and Christian areas alike. The Talhuq family and 'Abd-al-Malik, who supplied the later Druze leadership, have the same record as the Tanukhs. The Seven Druze precepts are:[138], Complicating their identity is the custom of taqiyya—concealing or disguising their beliefs when necessary—that they adopted from Ismailism and the esoteric nature of the faith, in which many teachings are kept secretive. Other important manuscripts in the religion are the Epistles of India or the “Rasa’il al-Hind,” the al-Munfarid bi-Dhatihi, among others. A human soul will transfer only to a human body, in contrast to the Hindu and Buddhist belief systems, according to which souls can transfer to any living creature. Furthermore, a male Druze can be reincarnated only as another male Druze and a female Druze only as another female Druze. The Druze faith was founded in Egypt in the 11th century and its followers primarily reside in the Middle East. Druze women in Isfiya, one of the largest Druze villages in Israel. They demanded to keep their autonomous administration and many political privileges accorded them by the French and sought generous economic assistance from the newly independent government. This led to the suspension of the movement for one year and the expulsion of ad-Darazi and his supporters. Eastern Orthodoxy C. Sikh D. Sunni E. Shiite. AEDT, Victoria, Applying behavioural science to create change The religion was created in the 10th and 11th centuries in Egypt, with aspects of Hindu and Greek philosophy incorporated into the tenets of Islam. And as the Ashkenazic Jews moved northward into the Khazarian Empire, the Druze moved southwards to Palestine – only for both people to reunite hundreds of years later. This time the prince decided to remain in Lebanon and resist the offensive, but the death of his son Ali in Wadi al-Taym was the beginning of his defeat. They are found primarily in Syria, Lebanon and Israel, with small communities in Jordan. [229][217][230] And by zooming in on the area, our genetic GPS traced most Druze to the region that overlaps northeast Turkey, southwest Armenia and northern Iraq. In the first century, the five were represented by Jesus Christ,[147][148] John the Baptist,[149] Saint Matthew, Saint Mark, and Saint Luke. The soul embodies the mind and is responsible for transmigration and the character of oneself. Pan-Arabism versus Pan-Islam – Where Do the Druze Fit? The rebellion ended in brutal suppression of the Druze by General Sami Pasha al-Farouqi, significant depopulation of the Hauran region and execution of the Druze leaders in 1910. [194], Both religions venerated Shuaib and Muhammad: Shuaib (Jethro) is revered as the chief prophet in the Druze religion,[195] Conference, Victoria, 2021 Humanitarian Leadership Conference - Who are the humanitarians? The sanguinary feuds between these two factions depleted, in course of time, the manhood of the Lebanon and ended in the decisive battle of Ain Dara in 1711, which resulted in the utter defeat of the Yemenite party. John Esposito states that al-Hakim believed that "he was not only the divinely appointed religio-political leader, but also the cosmic intellect linking God with creation",[66] while others like Nissim Dana and Mordechai Nisan state that he is perceived as the manifestation and the reincarnation of God or presumably the image of God. — [92] Contemporary historian Istifan al-Duwayhi reports that Korkmaz was killed in act of treachery by the Beylerbey of Damascus in 1662. The word which is the atom of language communicates qualia between humans and represents the platonic forms in the sensible world. NFL Network suspends insider Ian Rapoport One of the main evidences is the belief in reincarnation, butthere is a main difference between the Druze and the Hindus concerningthis issue. [21][22][23][24][25] It is a monotheistic and Abrahamic religion based on the teachings of Hamza ibn Ali ibn Ahmad and the sixth Fatimid caliph, al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah, and Ancient Greek philosophers such as Plato, Aristotle, Pythagoras, and Zeno of Citium. The leading "Atrash" family also can trace its background to the Kurdish tribe, the Hartush/Atrush, found in northern Iraq and southeastern Turkey today. Jumblatt's post-2005 position diverged sharply from the tradition of his family. [73] Al-Darazi wrote a book laying out this doctrine. The Sultan then sent a force against him, and he was compelled to flee the land and seek refuge in the courts of Tuscany and Naples in 1613 and 1615 respectively. Arabic-speaking esoteric ethno-religious group, Druze as a mixture of Western Asian tribes, Dwairy, Marwan (2006) "The Psychosocial Function of Reincarnation Among Druze in Israel", Minorities in the Middle East: A History of Struggle and Self-expression - Page 95 by Mordechai Nisan, The Druze in the Middle East: Their Faith, Leadership, Identity and Status - Page 41 by Nissim Dana, Encyclopaedic Survey of Islamic Culture - Page 94 by Mohamed Taher, Asian and African Studies: Vol. [110][page needed], He forcibly integrated minorities into the national Syrian social structure, his "Syrianization" of Alawite and Druze territories had to be accomplished in part using violence, he declared: "My enemies are like serpent. The oldest and most densely-populated Druze communities exist in Mount Lebanon and in the south of Syria around Jabal al-Druze (literally the "Mountain of the Druzes"). Many spies, mainly the followers of al-Darazi, joined the Unitarian movement in order to infiltrate the Druze community. The general relation with the Druze and Hindus is the peace and calmness value of it as we both believe in staying serene. In a 2005 study of ASPM gene variants, Mekel-Bobrov et al. On 25 July 2018, a group of ISIS-affiliated attackers entered the Druze city of As-Suwayda and initiated a series of gunfights and suicide bombings on its streets, killing at least 258 people, the vast majority of them civilians.[116]. [128][page needed] Tajalli is often misunderstood by scholars and writers and is usually confused with the concept of incarnation. [110][page needed], When a local paper in 1945 reported that President Shukri al-Quwatli (1943–49) had called the Druzes a "dangerous minority", Sultan Pasha al-Atrash flew into a rage and demanded a public retraction. Ye now may find rest in his assurance ye shall not be wronged. [128][page needed], Druze Sacred texts include the Quran and the Kitab Al Hikma (Epistles of Wisdom). Fact #1: Druze is a monotheistic religion and are often referred to as “People of Monotheism.” Fact #2: Druze originated in Egypt at the end of the 10th century. The prevailing idea among Druzes themselves today is that they are of Arab stock. Druze Religion. The flag of the Druze people. Renunciation of all forms of former worship (specifically, invalid creeds) and false belief. However, al-Darazi ignored Hamza's warnings and continued to challenge the Imam. In 1016 ad-Darazi and his followers openly proclaimed their beliefs and called people to join them, causing riots in Cairo against the Unitarian movement including Hamza bin Ali and his followers. The clashes ranged from Antioch to Alexandria, where tens of thousands of Druze were slaughtered by the Fatimid army,[50] "this mass persecution known by the Druze as the period of the mihna". After the middle of the twelfth century, the Ma'an family superseded the Tanukhs in Druze leadership. [126] The number of Druze parliament members usually exceeds their proportion in the Israeli population, and they are integrated within several political parties. [123] Today, thousands of Israeli Druze belong to "Druze Zionist" movements.[120]. [142][143][144][145][146] al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah is an important figure in the Druze faith whose eponymous founder ad-Darazi proclaimed him as the incarnation of God in 1018.[142][143]. [110] To this end, al-Shishakli encouraged the stigmatization of minorities. Galilee: J 31%, R 20%, E 18%, G 14%, K 11%, Q 4%, L 2%. Other religions including Hinduism, Buddhism, Bahá'í, Druze, Taoism, and Shintoism make up 1.31% of religious practitioners. In the late 1800’s, with the vast immigrant waves that came to America seeking new life and freedom, also emerged the Druze from the Levant or the East Mediterranean region with aspiring – hope, to forge new paths. [56], Druze people reside primarily in Syria, Lebanon, Israel and Jordan. In 1660, the Ottoman Empire moved to reorganize the region, placing the sanjaks (districts) of Sidon-Beirut and Safed in a newly formed province of Sidon, a move seen by local Druze as an attempt to assert control. [citation needed] Al-Hakim convinced some heretical followers such as al-Darazi of his soteriological divinity and officially declared the Divine call after issuing a decree promoting religious freedom. He later took refuge in Jezzine's grotto, closely followed by Küçük Ahmet Pasha who eventually caught up with him and his family. [234] Figures in the Hebrew Bible such as Adam, Noah, Abraham, and Moses are considered important prophets of God in the Druze faith, being among the seven prophets who appeared in different periods of history. [citation needed] The Druzes of Wadi al-Taym and Ḥawran, under the leadership of Shibli al-Aryan, distinguished themselves in their stubborn resistance at their inaccessible headquarters, al-Laja, lying southeast of Damascus. During the reign of al-Hakim (996 – 1021) the Druze creed came into being, blending Islamic monotheism with Greek philosophy and Hindu influences. [110][page needed] Other notable communities live in the Harim Mountains, the Damascus suburb of Jaramana, and on the southeast slopes of Mount Hermon. While the spiritual elements of their religion are highly guarded and known only to the elders, the known practices are made up of various religions which include Hinduism, Christianity, Islam and Judaism. Druze Sacred texts include the Qur'an and the Kitab Al Hikma (Epistles of Wisdom). HINDUISM The relation between the Druze faith and the far eastern thinking isobscure. [101] Following the recommendations of the powers, the Ottoman Porte granted Lebanon local autonomy, guaranteed by the powers, under a Christian governor. While in the Hindu and Buddhist belief system a soul can be transmitted to any living creature, in the Druze belief system this is not possible and a human soul will only transfer to a human body. During the reign of al-Hakim (996 - 1021) the Druze creed came into being, blending Islamic monotheism with Greek philosophy and Hindu influences. Shishakli dispatched 10,000 regular troops to occupy the Jebel al-Druze. 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